Alexander G. Bell und das Telefon des Antonio Meucci[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]. Siehe auch: Erfindung. Konkurrenzprodukte im Zuge dieser wertvollen Erfindung vorausahnend, reichte Bells späterer Schwiegervater Gardiner Hubbard am Februar ein Patent. Die Glühbirne erfand Thomas Edison, und das Telefon Alexander Graham Bell? Von wegen. Zum Tag der Erfinder erzählen wir die Geschichte.
Innovation: Erstes Telefonat wurde in Deutschland geführtAuch war dieses erste Telefon war nicht sonderlich gebrauchsfähig. meldet Alexander Graham Bell sein Telefon zum Patent an und verbesserte es immer. Vor Jahren gelang Graham Bell eine bahnbrechende Erfindung: Er entdeckte, wie man Schallwellen in elektrische Schwingungen. Dort forschte, experimentierte und entwickelt derjunge Bell weiter am Telefon Philipp Reis, vom italo-amerikanischen Erfinder eines Fernsprechapparates.
Bell Erfinder Alexander Graham Bell Erfindungen Entdecken Sie den Deutschlandfunk VideoThe Story of Alexander Graham Bell (1939)
Dazu gehГren gelegentliche Aktionen Das Beliebteste Spiel Reload Caruso Tennis oder Turniere fГr Tischspiele und. - NavigationsmenüAls Meucci zwei Jahre später seine Unterlagen zurückverlange, behauptete das Unternehmen, die Sachen verloren Ibeshmhr 2021 haben.
Main article: Photophone. Play media. This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it. Bell, Alexander Graham Washington, D. National Geographic Society.
To the end of his days, when discussing himself, Bell would always add with pride "I am a teacher of the deaf".
When he moved to Canada in , Canadian and British citizenship were functionally identical, with Canadian citizenship only becoming a formal classification in He applied for American citizenship after , gained it in , and referred to himself as an American citizen from that point on.
Quote from Bell speaking to his wife: "you are a citizen because you can't help it — you were born one, but I chose to be one. On October 24, , in Brantford, Ontario, the Governor General spoke at the unveiling of the Bell Telephone Memorial to an audience numbering in the thousands, saying: "Dr.
Bell is to be congratulated upon being able to receive the recognition of his fellow citizens and fellow countrymen".
Bell's dislike of the telephone. Of course, he never had one in his study. That was where he went when he wanted to be alone with his thoughts and his work.
The telephone, of course, means intrusion by the outside world. And the little difficulties and delays often attending the establishment of conversation But all really important business over the telephone he transacted himself.
There are few private houses more completely equipped with telephones than ours Bell was more particular about than our telephone service We never could have come here [to Beinn Bhreagh] in the first place or continued here, but for the telephone which kept us in close touch with doctors and neighbors and the regular telegraph office Bell did like to say in fun, "Why did I ever invent the Telephone," but no one had a higher appreciation of its indispensableness or used it more freely when need was—either personally or by deputy —and he was really tremendously proud of it and all it was accomplishing.
It received its historical designation from the Government of Canada on June 1, Mabel's exact age when she became deaf would later play a part in the debate on the effectiveness of manual versus oral education for deaf children , as children who are older at the onset of deafness retain greater vocalization skills and are thus more successful in oral education programs.
Some of the debate centred on whether Mabel had to relearn oral speech from scratch, or whether she never lost it. It was invented in Brantford at Tutela Heights in the summer of Others transmitted a sound or a click or a buzz but our boys [Bell and Watson] were the first to transmit speech one could understand.
Bell was so ecstatic that he wanted to jointly name his new invention and his new daughter Photophone Greek: " light—sound " ,   Bell wrote: "Only think!
Mabel's baby screamed inarticulately but mine spoke with distinct enunciation from the first. Bell quickly disassembled it and effected a repair, to the owner's amazement.
When asked how he was able to do so Bell only needed to introduce himself. Bell also chose maroon-colored silk as it would show up clearly against the light-colored sky in his photographic studies.
Views of an Expert. Attending the formal ceremony were Bell's daughter, Mrs. To each side of the portico facing the monument are the engraved inscriptions "In Grateful Recognition of the Inventor of the Telephone".
Its dedication was broadcast live nationally by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. His wife, Mabel, daughter Daisy, and son-in-law David Fairchild had gathered around him.
His last view was of the moon rising above the mountain he loved". Halifax, Nova Scotia: Formac Publishing. IEEE Spectrum. Toronto, Ontario: Kids Can Press.
Bell's Appreciation of the Telephone Service". Bell Telephone Quarterly. Retrieved September 18, Retrieved January 9, Retrieved January 18, Though he wasn't one of the original 33 founders, Bell had a major influence on the Society.
National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved: July 28, Bell Dead. Father of Prof. Bell Developed Sign Language for Mutes".
The New York Times. August 8, The Franklin Institute. Edinburgh, UK: Mainstream Publishing. Toronto, Ontario: Grolier.
Dictionary of Canadian Biography. XV — online ed. Bell was fascinated by the machine and after he obtained a copy of von Kempelen's book, published in German, and had laboriously translated it, he and his older brother Melville built their own automaton head.
Their father, highly interested in their project, offered to pay for any supplies and spurred the boys on with the enticement of a "big prize" if they were successful.
His efforts resulted in a remarkably lifelike head that could "speak", albeit only a few words. Intrigued by the results of the automaton, Bell continued to experiment with a live subject, the family's Skye Terrier , "Trouve".
With little convincing, visitors believed his dog could articulate "How are you, grandma? At age 19, Bell wrote a report on his work and sent it to philologist Alexander Ellis , a colleague of his father who would later be portrayed as Professor Henry Higgins in Pygmalion.
Dismayed to find that groundbreaking work had already been undertaken by Helmholtz who had conveyed vowel sounds by means of a similar tuning fork "contraption", Bell pored over the German scientist's book.
Working from his own erroneous mistranslation of a French edition,  Bell fortuitously then made a deduction that would be the underpinning of all his future work on transmitting sound, reporting: "Without knowing much about the subject, it seemed to me that if vowel sounds could be produced by electrical means, so could consonants, so could articulate speech.
It was a valuable blunder If I had been able to read German in those days, I might never have commenced my experiments!
In , when the Bell family moved to London,  Bell returned to Weston House as an assistant master and, in his spare hours, continued experiments on sound using a minimum of laboratory equipment.
Bell concentrated on experimenting with electricity to convey sound and later installed a telegraph wire from his room in Somerset College to that of a friend.
His younger brother, Edward "Ted," was similarly bed-ridden, suffering from tuberculosis. While Bell recovered by then referring to himself in correspondence as "A.
Bell" and served the next year as an instructor at Somerset College, Bath , England, his brother's condition deteriorated. Edward would never recover.
Upon his brother's death, Bell returned home in His older brother Melville had married and moved out. With aspirations to obtain a degree at University College London , Bell considered his next years as preparation for the degree examinations, devoting his spare time at his family's residence to studying.
Hull's private school for the deaf in South Kensington , London. His first two pupils were deaf-mute girls who made remarkable progress under his tutelage.
While his older brother seemed to achieve success on many fronts including opening his own elocution school, applying for a patent on an invention, and starting a family, Bell continued as a teacher.
However, in May , Melville died from complications due to tuberculosis, causing a family crisis. His father had also suffered a debilitating illness earlier in life and had been restored to health by a convalescence in Newfoundland.
Bell's parents embarked upon a long-planned move when they realized that their remaining son was also sickly. Acting decisively, Alexander Melville Bell asked Bell to arrange for the sale of all the family property,  [N 7] conclude all of his brother's affairs Bell took over his last student, curing a pronounced lisp ,  and join his father and mother in setting out for the " New World ".
Reluctantly, Bell also had to conclude a relationship with Marie Eccleston, who, as he had surmised, was not prepared to leave England with him. In , year-old Bell travelled with his parents and his brother's widow, Caroline Margaret Ottaway,  to Paris, Ontario ,  to stay with Thomas Henderson, a Baptist minister and family friend.
The property consisted of an orchard, large farmhouse, stable, pigsty, hen-house, and a carriage house , which bordered the Grand River. At the homestead, Bell set up his own workshop in the converted carriage house near to what he called his "dreaming place",  a large hollow nestled in trees at the back of the property above the river.
For his work, Bell was awarded the title of Honorary Chief and participated in a ceremony where he donned a Mohawk headdress and danced traditional dances.
After setting up his workshop, Bell continued experiments based on Helmholtz's work with electricity and sound. Bell's father was invited by Sarah Fuller , principal of the Boston School for Deaf Mutes which continues today as the public Horace Mann School for the Deaf ,  in Boston, Massachusetts, United States, to introduce the Visible Speech System by providing training for Fuller's instructors, but he declined the post in favour of his son.
Travelling to Boston in April , Bell proved successful in training the school's instructors. Returning home to Brantford after six months abroad, Bell continued his experiments with his "harmonic telegraph".
Unsure of his future, he first contemplated returning to London to complete his studies, but decided to return to Boston as a teacher. Teaching his father's system, in October , Alexander Bell opened his "School of Vocal Physiology and Mechanics of Speech" in Boston, which attracted a large number of deaf pupils, with his first class numbering 30 students.
She was later to say that Bell dedicated his life to the penetration of that "inhuman silence which separates and estranges". Several influential people of the time, including Bell, viewed deafness as something that should be eradicated, and also believed that with resources and effort, they could teach the deaf to read lips and speak known as oralism  and not use sign language , thus enabling their integration within the wider society from which many were often being excluded.
During this period, he alternated between Boston and Brantford, spending summers in his Canadian home. At Boston University, Bell was "swept up" by the excitement engendered by the many scientists and inventors residing in the city.
He continued his research in sound and endeavored to find a way to transmit musical notes and articulate speech, but although absorbed by his experiments, he found it difficult to devote enough time to experimentation.
While days and evenings were occupied by his teaching and private classes, Bell began to stay awake late into the night, running experiment after experiment in rented facilities at his boarding house.
Keeping "night owl" hours, he worried that his work would be discovered and took great pains to lock up his notebooks and laboratory equipment.
Bell had a specially made table where he could place his notes and equipment inside a locking cover. Deciding to give up his lucrative private Boston practice, Bell retained only two students, six-year-old "Georgie" Sanders, deaf from birth, and year-old Mabel Hubbard.
Each pupil would play an important role in the next developments. George's father, Thomas Sanders, a wealthy businessman, offered Bell a place to stay in nearby Salem with Georgie's grandmother, complete with a room to "experiment".
Although the offer was made by George's mother and followed the year-long arrangement in where her son and his nurse had moved to quarters next to Bell's boarding house, it was clear that Mr.
Sanders was backing the proposal. The arrangement was for teacher and student to continue their work together, with free room and board thrown in.
Having lost her hearing after a near-fatal bout of scarlet fever close to her fifth birthday,   [N 12] she had learned to read lips but her father, Gardiner Greene Hubbard , Bell's benefactor and personal friend, wanted her to work directly with her teacher.
By , Bell's initial work on the harmonic telegraph had entered a formative stage, with progress made both at his new Boston "laboratory" a rented facility and at his family home in Canada a big success.
Bell thought it might be possible to generate undulating electrical currents that corresponded to sound waves. But he had no working model to demonstrate the feasibility of these ideas.
In , telegraph message traffic was rapidly expanding and in the words of Western Union President William Orton , had become "the nervous system of commerce".
Antonio Meucci sent a telephone model and technical details to the Western Union telegraph company but failed to win a meeting with executives. When he asked for his materials to be returned, in , he was told they had been lost.
Two years later Bell, who shared a laboratory with Meucci, filed a patent for a telephone, became a celebrity and made a lucrative deal with Western Union.
Meucci sued and was nearing victory—the supreme court agreed to hear the case and fraud charges were initiated against Bell—when the Florentine died in The legal action died with him.
In March , Bell and Pollok visited the scientist Joseph Henry , who was then director of the Smithsonian Institution , and asked Henry's advice on the electrical multi-reed apparatus that Bell hoped would transmit the human voice by telegraph.
Henry replied that Bell had "the germ of a great invention". When Bell said that he did not have the necessary knowledge, Henry replied, "Get it!
However, a chance meeting in between Bell and Thomas A. Watson , an experienced electrical designer and mechanic at the electrical machine shop of Charles Williams, changed all that.
With financial support from Sanders and Hubbard, Bell hired Thomas Watson as his assistant, [N 14] and the two of them experimented with acoustic telegraphy.
On June 2, , Watson accidentally plucked one of the reeds and Bell, at the receiving end of the wire, heard the overtones of the reed; overtones that would be necessary for transmitting speech.
That demonstrated to Bell that only one reed or armature was necessary, not multiple reeds. This led to the "gallows" sound-powered telephone , which could transmit indistinct, voice-like sounds, but not clear speech.
In , Bell developed an acoustic telegraph and drew up a patent application for it. Since he had agreed to share U. Meanwhile, Elisha Gray was also experimenting with acoustic telegraphy and thought of a way to transmit speech using a water transmitter.
On February 14, , Gray filed a caveat with the U. Patent Office for a telephone design that used a water transmitter. That same morning, Bell's lawyer filed Bell's application with the patent office.
There is considerable debate about who arrived first and Gray later challenged the primacy of Bell's patent. Bell was in Boston on February 14 and did not arrive in Washington until February Bell's patent ,, was issued to Bell on March 7, , by the U.
Patent Office. Bell's patent covered "the method of, and apparatus for, transmitting vocal or other sounds telegraphically On March 10, , three days after his patent was issued, Bell succeeded in getting his telephone to work, using a liquid transmitter similar to Gray's design.
Vibration of the diaphragm caused a needle to vibrate in the water, varying the electrical resistance in the circuit. When Bell spoke the sentence "Mr.
Watson—Come here—I want to see you" into the liquid transmitter,  Watson, listening at the receiving end in an adjoining room, heard the words clearly.
Although Bell was, and still is, accused of stealing the telephone from Gray,  Bell used Gray's water transmitter design only after Bell's patent had been granted, and only as a proof of concept scientific experiment,  to prove to his own satisfaction that intelligible "articulate speech" Bell's words could be electrically transmitted.
The question of priority for the variable resistance feature of the telephone was raised by the examiner before he approved Bell's patent application.
He told Bell that his claim for the variable resistance feature was also described in Gray's caveat.
Bell pointed to a variable resistance device in his previous application in which he described a cup of mercury, not water.
He had filed the mercury application at the patent office a year earlier on February 25, , long before Elisha Gray described the water device.
In addition, Gray abandoned his caveat, and because he did not contest Bell's priority, the examiner approved Bell's patent on March 3, Gray had reinvented the variable resistance telephone, but Bell was the first to write down the idea and the first to test it in a telephone.
The patent examiner , Zenas Fisk Wilber, later stated in an affidavit that he was an alcoholic who was much in debt to Bell's lawyer, Marcellus Bailey , with whom he had served in the Civil War.
He claimed he showed Gray's patent caveat to Bailey. Wilber also claimed after Bell arrived in Washington D. Bell claimed they discussed the patent only in general terms, although in a letter to Gray, Bell admitted that he learned some of the technical details.
Bell denied in an affidavit that he ever gave Wilber any money. On March 10, Bell used "the instrument" in Boston to call Thomas Watson who was in another room but out of earshot.
He said, "Mr. Watson, come here — I want to see you" and Watson soon appeared at his side. Continuing his experiments in Brantford, Bell brought home a working model of his telephone.
On August 3, , from the telegraph office in Brantford, Ontario, Bell sent a tentative telegram to the village of Mount Pleasant four miles six kilometres distant, indicating that he was ready.
He made a telephone call via telegraph wires and faint voices were heard replying. The following night, he amazed guests as well as his family with a call between the Bell Homestead and the office of the Dominion Telegraph Company in Brantford along an improvised wire strung up along telegraph lines and fences, and laid through a tunnel.
This time, guests at the household distinctly heard people in Brantford reading and singing. The third test on August 10, , was made via the telegraph line between Brantford and Paris, Ontario, eight miles thirteen kilometres distant.
This test was said by many sources to be the "world's first long-distance call". The first two-way reciprocal conversation over a line occurred between Cambridge and Boston roughly 2.
The president of Western Union balked, countering that the telephone was nothing but a toy. By then, the Bell company no longer wanted to sell the patent.
Bell began a series of public demonstrations and lectures to introduce the new invention to the scientific community as well as the general public.
A short time later, his demonstration of an early telephone prototype at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia brought the telephone to international attention.
One of the judges at the Exhibition, Sir William Thomson later, Lord Kelvin , a renowned Scottish scientist, described the telephone as "the greatest by far of all the marvels of the electric telegraph".
These were the first publicly witnessed long-distance telephone calls in the UK. Hi there! Sign in Create an account Buy images Sell images.
Share Alamy images with your team and customers. A birthplace marker at the entrance to Bell's birthhome, in his native Edinburgh, Scotland.
Image taken April A plaque placed at Bell's workplace in Boston commemorating the 'birth' of the telephone on June 2, , some 10 months prior to its first intelligible use.
View of the same plaque, with the Henderson Home, Canada's first telephone company business office , in the background.
Plaque commemorating the first long distance telephone call , received by Bell in Paris, Ontario, Canada on August 10, Alexander Graham Bell is shown holding an early long distance phone conversation.
Courtesy: Harry Zilber. Bell Telephone Memorial: Central bronze casting. Bell Telephone Memorial supplementary view. Photo of Volta Bureau in Georgetown, Washington, D.
Image from State Historic Preservation Office. An earlier photo of the Volta Bureau , taken by the U. National Park Service, in Bell's name and plaque were removed in Image from June Mother and Child image taken by A.
More on Alexander Graham Bell. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. Patent caveats according to the law were "a description of an invention, intended to be patented, lodged in the patent office before the patent was applied for, and operated as a bar to the issue of any patent to any other person regarding the same invention.
They are no longer issued. Patent caveats were much less costly than a full patent application and required a less detailed description of the invention.
The U. Patent Office would note the subject matter of the caveat and hold it in confidentiality. If within the year another inventor filed a patent application for a similar invention, the Patent Office notified the holder of the caveat, who then had three months to submit a formal application.
Antonio Meucci did not renew his caveat after , and Alexander Graham Bell was granted a patent in March of